What is visible and invisible: the portrayal of dual language programs on school websites

Elisabeth Kim, Minhye Son

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Dual Language Bilingual Education (DLBE) programs have expanded rapidly in a large Northeastern urban school district in the United States in recent years, but multilingual families, particularly those from immigrant backgrounds, receive limited information about program offerings from school websites. In this qualitative study, utilizing critical discourse analysis, 21 websites of district schools with DLBE programs were reviewed. Findings suggest there was limited information overall about DLBE offerings such as the program model, principles, and values on school websites, even in programs recognized as ‘district model programs’. More professionally done websites with vibrant photos, videos, and detailed information about bilingual education, in multiple languages, were most often found in gentrified communities, but the information was not tailored to the needs of low-income and immigrant communities and did not actively promote multilingualism. Most of the websites that did provide information about DLBE focused on cognitive, academic, and sociocultural goals rather than economic benefits and family and heritage connections which have been found to be attractive to immigrant parents. Using an equity lens, implications and recommendations for schools and policymakers are discussed.
Original languageAmerican English
JournalLanguage and Education
StatePublished - Jun 13 2023


  • Bilingual education
  • critical discourse analysis
  • dual language
  • multilingual/multicultural learners
  • school websites


  • Education

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