The Apologies of Australia, Canada and the United States to Historically Subjugated Peoples: On Argumentation, Reconciliation, and Forgiveness

Patrick Belanger, Kara Gilbert, Tom Goodnight

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In 2008, the governments of Australia and Canada apologized to indigenous peoples of each respective country for past wrongs, while the United States House of Representatives offered an apology to African peoples and their descendants for slavery. This paper conducts a comparative analysis of the three national moments to explore the capacities for language-based argumentation to invite forgiveness, mitigate historical social injustices, and promote inter-cultural accord that weaves temporal sinews of reconciliation.
Original languageAmerican English
JournalArgument Cultures: Proceedings of OSSA 09
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Australia
  • Canada
  • United States
  • apology
  • discourse
  • forgiveness
  • reconciliation
  • trust


  • Communication
  • Critical and Cultural Studies

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