Primary School Writing

Joanna Wong, Christian J. Faltis

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Teachers' pedagogical writing knowledge, knowledge about their emergent bilingual learners, and valuation of students' L1 have implications for instructional contexts of L2 writing development. Pedagogical approaches to children's bilingual and/or L2 and literacy development have traditionally focused on L2 oral language proficiency, followed by L2 reading, and then L2 writing. However, bilingual scholars have argued with evidence that bilingual children can develop L2 writing while they are learning to speak, listen, and read in English. More specifically, bilingual children may begin L2 writing early on, drawing on their L1 and L1/L2 language knowledge to support L2 composing practices. Accordingly, teachers who serve emergent bilingual children must be prepared to provide linguistically and culturally responsive instruction that supports idea articulation through writing as students simultaneously develop oral, listening, and reading skills in their L2. This entry discusses issues relevant to bilingual writers and offers pedagogical recommendations to support biliteracy development.
Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationThe TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching
StatePublished - 2018


  • bilingualism
  • biliteracy
  • emergent biliingual writers
  • writing


  • Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education
  • Language and Literacy Education

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