Phase Corrections of Small-Loop HF Radar System Receive Arrays With Ships of Opportunity

Daniel Fernandez, John F. Vesecky, Calvin Teague

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper is an extension of other work that addresses the use of radar echoes from ships of opportunity to determine the proper phase corrections for small-loop phased-array antennas used within high-frequency (HF) ground-wave radar systems. This technique also yields estimates for unknown ship bearings that (for cases where there is adequate signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB or more) are consistent to within 2deg–3deg among measurements from independent radar frequencies. Within this paper, phase corrections gathered from actual ships of opportunity are compared to phase corrections gathered during a calibrated transponder run, in which the ship bearing is known. The phase corrections derived from the ship of opportunity presented in this paper were consistent with the known phase corrections to within 13.2deg (for the worst case). Furthermore, the estimates of the ship bearings collected from the two usable radar frequencies were consistent to within 1deg of each other.
Original languageAmerican English
JournalIEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
StatePublished - 2006


  • phase corrections
  • phased-array antenna
  • ship location
  • transponder
  • High-frequency (HF) radar


  • Oceanography

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