Introduction of a Conceptual Model for Integrating the MMPI-2-RF Into HCR-20V3 Violence Risk Assessments and Associations Between the MMPI-2-RF and Institutional Violence

Anthony M. Tarescavage, David M. Glassmire, Danielle Burchett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reflecting the need to prevent violence, structured professional judgment assessment tools have been developed specifically to assess the likelihood of future violence. These tools typically integrate data from clinical interviews and collateral records to assist in the conceptualization of violence risk, but objective psychological testing may also be useful in completing the instruments. The authors describe the advantages of using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in this manner with the Historical Clinical Management-20 Version 3 (HCR-20 V3 ). Accordingly, they have 2 purposes. First, they sought to identify conceptual links between the constructs measured by the tools and introduce a model to integrate MMPI-2-RF findings into an HCR-20 V3  risk assessment. Second, although the authors did not have collateral HCR-20 V3  ratings, they sought to examine associations between the MMPI-2-RF scales and future violence in a sample of 303 psychiatric patients (233 males, 70 females) adjudicated as not guilty by reason of insanity. The authors found that the MMPI-2-RF scales demonstrated significant, meaningful associations with a count of future violent acts at the hospital. The largest associations involved scales measuring emotional dysregulation and externalizing dysfunction. These associations were qualified by relative risk ratio analyses indicating that patients producing elevations on these scales were at 1.5 to 2.5 times greater risk of future violence than those without elevations. Overall, the findings indicated that most MMPI-2-RF scales conceptually linked to the HCR-20 V3 risk factors were associated with future violence. In light of these findings, the authors discuss recommendations for integrating the MMPI-2-RF when interpreting HCR-20 V3  risk factors.
Original languageAmerican English
JournalLaw and Human Behavior
StatePublished - Dec 2016


  • HCR-20V3
  • MMPI-2-RF
  • institutional violence
  • risk assessment


  • Psychology

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