Evaluating Item Endorsement Rates for the MMPI-2-RF F-r and Fp-r Scales Across Ethnic, Gender, and Diagnostic Groups With a Forensic Inpatient Sample

David M. Glassmire, Amandeep Jhawar, Danielle Burchett, Anthony M. Tarescavage

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (MMPI-2) F(p) (Infrequency-Psychopathology) scale was developed to measure overreporting in a manner that was minimally confounded by genuine psychopathology, which was a problem with using the MMPI-2 F (Infrequency) scale among patients with severe mental illness. Although revised versions of both of these scales are included on the MMPI-2–Restructured Form and used in a forensic context, no item-level research has been conducted on their sensitivity to genuine psychopathology among forensic psychiatric inpatients. Therefore, we examined the psychometric properties of the scales in a sample of 438 criminally committed forensic psychiatric inpatients who were adjudicated as not guilty by reason of insanity and had no known incentive to overreport. We found that 20 of the 21 Fp-r items (95.2%) demonstrated endorsement rates ≤ 20%, with 14 of the items (66.7%) endorsed by less than 10% of the sample. Similar findings were observed across genders and across patients with mood and psychotic disorders. The one item endorsed by more than 20% of the sample had a 23.7% overall endorsement rate and significantly different endorsement rates across ethnic groups, with the highest endorsements occurring among Hispanic/Latino (43.3% endorsement rate) patients. Endorsement rates of F-r items were generally higher than for Fp-r items. At the scale level, we also examined correlations with the Restructured Clinical Scales and found that Fp-r demonstrated lower correlations than F-r, indicating that Fp-r is less associated with a broad range of psychopathology. Finally, we found that Fp-r demonstrated slightly higher specificity values than F-r at all T score cutoffs.
Original languageAmerican English
JournalPsychological Assessment
StatePublished - May 2017


  • F-r
  • Fp-r
  • MMPI-2-RF
  • forensic
  • inpatient
  • overreporting
  • validity scales


  • Psychology

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