Adapting the McMaster-Ottawa Scale and Developing Behavioral Anchors for Assessing Performance in an Interprofessional Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter

Désirée Lie, Win May, Regina Richter-Lagha, Christopher Forest, Yvonne Banzali, Kevin Lohenry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background : Current scales for interprofessional team performance do not provide adequate behavioral anchors for performance evaluation. The Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter (TOSCE) provides an opportunity to adapt and develop an existing scale for this purpose. We aimed to test the feasibility of using a retooled scale to rate performance in a standardized patient encounter and to assess faculty ability to accurately rate both individual students and teams.
Methods : The 9-point McMaster-Ottawa Scale developed for a TOSCE was converted to a 3-point scale with behavioral anchors. Students from four professions were trained a priori to perform in teams of four at three different levels as individuals and teams. Blinded faculty raters were trained to use the scale to evaluate individual and team performances. G-theory was used to analyze ability of faculty to accurately rate individual students and teams using the retooled scale.
Results : Sixteen faculty, in groups of four, rated four student teams, each participating in the same TOSCE station. Faculty expressed comfort rating up to four students in a team within a 35-min timeframe. Accuracy of faculty raters varied (3881% individuals, 50100% teams), with errors in the direction of over-rating individual, but not team performance. There was no consistent pattern of error for raters. Conclusion : The TOSCE can be administered as an evaluation method for interprofessional teams. However, faculty demonstrate a ‘leniency error’ in rating students, even with prior training using behavioral anchors. To improve consistency, we recommend two trained faculty raters per station. 
Original languageAmerican English
JournalMedical Education Online
StatePublished - May 22 2015


  • interprofessional education
  • observed structured clinical encounter
  • assessment
  • standard-setting


  • Medical Education

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